India: Major Ports and International Airports LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY Communication Ever since humans appeared on the earth, they have used different means of communication. But, the pace of change, has been rapid in modern times. Long distance communication is far easier without physical movement of the communicator or receiver. Personal communication and mass communication including television, radio, press, films, etc. are the major means of communication in the country. The Indian postal network is the largest in the world. It handles parcels as well as personal written communications. Cards and envelopes are considered first–class mail and are airlifted between stations covering both land and air. The second–class mail includes book packets, registered newspapers and periodicals. They are carried by surface mail, covering land and water transport. To facilitate quick delivery of mails in large towns and cities, six mail channels have been introduced recently. They are called Rajdhani Channel, Metro Channel, Green Channel, Business Channel, Bulk Mail Channel and Periodical Channel. order to strengthen the flow of information from the grassroot to the higher level, the government has made special provision to extend twenty-four hours STD facility to every village in the country. There is a uniform rate of STD facilities all over India. It has been made possible by integrating the development in space technology with communication technology. Mass communication provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various national programmes and policies. It includes radio, television, newspapers, magazines, books and films. All India Radio (Akashwani) broadcasts a variety of programmes in national, regional and local languages for various categories of people, spread over different parts of the country. Doordarshan, the national television channel of India, is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. It broadcasts a variety of programmes from entertainment, educational to sports, etc. for people of different age groups. India publishes a large number of newspapers and periodicals annually. They are of different types depending upon their periodicity. Newspapers are published in about 100 languages and dialects. Did you know that the largest number of newspapers published in the country are in Hindi, followed by English and Urdu? India is the largest producer of feature films in the world. It produces short films; video feature films and video short films. The Central Board of Film Certification is the authority to certify both Indian and foreign films. International Trade The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. The market is the place where such exchanges take place. Trade between two countries is called international trade. It may take place through sea, air or land routes. While local trade is carried in cities, towns and villages, state level trade is carried between two or more states. Advancement of international trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity. It is, therefore, considered the economic barometer for a country. CONTEMPORARY INDIA – II 3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words. (i) Why are the means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy? (ii) Write a note on the changing nature of the international trade in the last fifteen years. QUIZ DRIVE 1. Northern terminal of the North-south corridor. 2. The name of National Highway No.2. 3. The headquarter of the southern railway zone. 4. The rail gauge with a track width of 1.676 m. 5. The southern terminal of the National Highway No.7. 6. A Riverine Port. 7. Busiest railway junction in Northern India. ACTIVITY Start your search vertically, horizontally or diagonally and reach various destinations across the country! S H E R S H A H S U R I M A R G A R T P R N X E L A T A D L A Y J M M X I P O R A Y M P G H T X Y C H E N N N A I I K M C A I M O D C D A L M C S O T P O R C P A P T R G S K J M J L E A N E R R A E T A J P O R M W M A S X O I L S B R O A D G A U G E L O T A S N L C M E C U K Z M A A J E L M U G H A L S A R A I B S N A G O E T V R A Y F T O R E A J M K Q A I P M N Y R Y A Y H L I N Q K O L K A T A E U I T W B E A N I T N K D E M O U R P N P J D

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