Biology Lab Manual (EN)

Laboratory Manual: Biology S. No. Monocot Stem Dicot Stem 1. Epidermis single layered and no epidermal hairs Epidermis single layered and epidermal hairs are present 2. Hypodermis sclerenchymatous Hypodermis collenchymatous 3. The vascular bundles are scattered in arrangement The vascular bundles are arranged in a ring 4. The vascular bundles at the periphery are smaller in size than those at the center The vascular bundles are of the same size 5. The vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and closed; the sclerenchymatous bundle sheath is present; the vessels are arranged in V- or Y-shape; water cavity is present The vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open; the bundle sheath is absent; the vessels are arranged in rows; water cavity is absent 6. Only ground tissue is present A well defined cortex, endodermis, pericycle and pith are present A few typical dicotyledonous stems and monocotyledonous stems that can be selected for study of anatomical are given in the following table. Dicotyledonous StemsIn the following pages diagrams ar Monocotyledonous Stemse given showing cellular details and Helianthus (sunflower) Tinospora Ricinus (castor) Xanthium Zea mays (maize/corn) Canna Asparagus Cynodon dactylon (Doob grass)

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