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Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:
(a) All green plants are...........
(b) All non-green plants and animals are ..............
(c) Heterotrophs depend on ............. and other ................... for food.
(d) Green plants use ............ and ............... to make food.
(e) Iodine turns blue-black on reacting with ........................
Name the following:
(a) The process in plants which converts light energy into chemical energy.
(b) Organisms that cannot prepare their own food.
(c) Organisms that can prepare their own food.
(d) The cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs.
(e) The cells which surround a stomatal pore.
(f) An enzyme secreted by gastric glands in stomach which acts on proteins.
When a person eats sugary food, then organisms A present in his mouth act on sugar to produce a substance B. The substance B first dissolves the calcium salts from the top part C of the tooth and then from its middle part D forming holes E. These holes ultimately reach the part F in the lower part of tooth which contains nerves and blood vessels. The substance B irritates the nerve endings inside the tooth causing toothache.
(a) What are (i) organisms A, and (ii) substance B?
(b) What are (i) part C, and (ii) part D, of tooth known as?
(c) By what name are the holes E in the tooth known?
(d) Name the part F of the tooth.
(e) What will happen if organisms A reach part F of the tooth ?
H the teeth are not cleaned regularly, they become covered with a sticky yellowish layer W of food particles and bacteria. Since layer W covers the teeth, the alkaline liquid X secreted by glands Y inside the mouth cannot reach the teeth surface to neutralise the acid formed by the action of organisms Z on sugary food, and hence tooth decay sets in.
(a) What is W known as?
(b) What is (i) X, and (ii) Y?
(c) What are organisms Z?
(d) State one way of removing layer W from the teeth.
When a person puts food in his mouth, then teeth cut it into small pieces, chew and grind it. The glands A in the mouth secrete a substance B which is mixed with the food by tongue. The substance B contains an enzyme C which starts the digestion of food in the mouth. The slightly digested food from the mouth goes down a tube D. The special type of movements E in the walls of tube D push the food into stomach for further digestion. The stomach wall secretes gastric juice containing three substance F, G and H. One of the functions of F is to kill bacteria which may enter the stomach with food. The substance G protects the inside layer of stomach from the damaging effect of substance F whereas substance H is an enzyme for digestion. The partially digested food then enters into small intestine for further digestion.
(a) What is (i) gland A
(ii) substance B, and (iii) enzyme C?
(b) Name the tube D.
(c) What is the movement E known as?
(d) What are (i) F (ii) G, and (iii) H?
The partially digested food coming from the stomach of a person enters a long and narrow organ A in his body. The organ A receives the secretions of two glands : liver and pancreas. Liver secretes a greenish yellow liquid B which is normally stored in the organ C. Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contains three digestive enzymes D, E and F. The intestinal juice completes the process of digestion of food. The inner wall of organ A has millions of tiny finger-like projections G which help in the rapid absorption of digested food into blood stream. The undigested part of food then passes into wider tube H which absorbs most of the water from undigested food. The last part of tube H called I stores this undigested food (or waste) for some time. The undigested food is then passed out though opening J as faeces in the process known as K.
(a) Name the organ A
(b) Name (t) liquid B, and (it) organ C.
(c) What are the digestive enzymes D, E and F?
(d) Name the projections G present on the inner wall of organ A.
(e) Name (i) tube H (ii) part I (iii) opening J, and (iv) process K.
A unicellular animal P having no fixed shape ingests a food particle by forming temporary finger-like projections Q. The food particle is engulfed with a little surrounding water to form a temporary stomach R inside it. The chemicals S from surrounding cytoplasm enter into R and break down food into small and soluble molecules by chemical reactions. The digested food is absorbed directly into cytoplasm by the process T. The undigested food is thrown out of the body by the rupture of a cell organelle U in a process called V.
(a) Name the unicellular animal P. (b) What are (i) Q and (ii) R ?
(c) Name (i) chemicalS, and (ii) process T.
(d) Name (i) organelle U, and (ii) process V.
There are four organisms A, B, C and D. The organism A eats only the flesh of other animals as food. The organism B can eat grains, fruits and vegetables as well as meat and fish. The organism C can make the food itself from simple inorganic substances present in the environment by utilising sunlight energy. On the other hand, organism D eats only plants and their products as food.
(a) Which organism is (i) omnivore
(ii) herbivore, and (iii) carnivore ?
(b) Which organism is an autotroph ?
(c) Which organism is/are heterotroph(s)?
(d) Which organism can be a producer ?
(e) Which organism is/are consumer (s)?
(f) Give one example each of organisms which could be like (i) A (ii) B (iii) C, and (iv) D
The organisms A, B and C can obtain their food in three different ways. Organism A derives its food from the body of another living organism which is called its D, without killing it. The organism B takes in the solid food by the process of ingestion, digests a part of this food and throws out undigested food in the process called E. The organism C obtains its food from dead and decaying plants.
(a) What is the mode of nutrition of
(i) organism A
(ii) organism B, and
(iii) organism C ?
(b) What is the organism like D called ?
(c) Name the process E.
(d) Give one example each of organisms like (i) A (ii) B, and (ii) C.
(e) What is the general name of three modes of nutrition exhibited by organisms A, B and C ?
An organism A which cannot move from one place to another, makes a simple food B from the substances C and D available in the environment. This food is made in the presence of a green coloured substance E present in organs F in the presence of light energy in a process called G. Some of the simple food B also gets converted into a complex food H for storage purposes. The food H gives a blue-black colour with dilute iodine solution.
(a) What is (i) organism A (ii) food B, and (iii) food H ?
(b) What are C and D?
(c) Name (i) green coloured substance E, and (ii) organ F.
(d) What is the process G?
X is a wild animal which eats only the flesh of other animals whereas Y is a domestic animal which feeds mainly on green grass.
(a) What are animals like X known as?
(b) What are animals like Y known as ?
(c) Which animal, X or Y, has a longer small intestine? Why?
(d) Name one animal which is like X.
(e) Name one animal which is like Y.
Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:
(a) The organs of respiration in man are the.................
(b) The actual exchange of gases takes place in the................of the lungs.
(c) ..................in the lungs provide a very large surface area for gaseous exchange.
(d) Yeast undergoes..............respiration whereas Amoeba undergoes..................respiration.
(e) Gills are the breathing organs in................
Which of the following statements are true about respiration?
(i) during inhalation, ribs move inward and diaphragm is raised.
(ii) the. gaseous exchange takes place in the alveoli.
(iii) haemoglobin has greater affinity for carbon dioxide than oxygen.
(iv) alveoli increase surface area for the exchange of gases
During the respiration of an organism A, 1 molecule of glucose produces 2 ATP molecules whereas in the respiration of another organism B, 1 molecule of glucose produces 38 ATP molecules.
(a) Which organism is undergoing aerobic respiration?
(b) Which organism is undergoing anaerobic respiration?
(c) Which type of organism, A or B, can convert glucose into alcohol?
(d) Name one organism which behaves like A
(e) Name two organisms which behave like B
A, Band Care three living organisms. The organism A is a unicellullar fungus which can live without air. It is used in the commercial production of an organic compound P from molasses. The organism B is a unicellular animal which lives in water and feeds and moves by using pseudopodia. It breathes through an organelle Q. The organism C is a tiny animal which acts as a carrier of malarial parasite. It breathes and respires through a kind of tiny holes Rand air-tubes Sin its body.
(a) What are organisms (i) A (ii) B, and (iii) C?
(b) Name (i) P (ii) Q (iii) R, and (iv) S.
(c) Which organism/ organisms undergo aerobic respiration?
(d) Which organism/ organisms undergo anaerobic respiration?
There are five animals P, Q R, S and T. The animal P always lives in water and has gills for breathing. The animal Q can stay in water as well as on land and can breathe both, through moist skin and lungs. The animal R lives in soil and breathes only through its skin. The animal S lives on land and breathes through spiracles and tracheae. And animal T lives in water and breathes through its cell membrane.
(a) Which of the animals could be Amoeba?
(b) Which of the animals could be frog?
(c) Which animal could be fish?
(d) Which animal could be grasshopper?
(e) Which animal could be earthworm?
Some sugar solution is taken in a test-tube and a little of substance X in powder form is added to it. The mouth of test-tube is closed with a cork and allowed to stand for some time. On opening the cork, a characteristic smell of substance Y is obtained and a gas Z is also observed to be formed. The gas Z extinguishes a burning matchstick.
(a) What could be (i) X, (ii) Y, and (iii) Z ?
(b) What is the process of converting sugar into substance Y by the action of X known as? (c) What type of respiration is exhibited by X in the above process ?
Consider the following chemical reactions which take place in different organisms/tissues under various conditions:
(i) Glucose Ethanol + Carbon dioxide + Energy
(ii) Glucose Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
(iii) Glucose Lactic acid + Energy
(a) Name one organism which respires according to equation (i) above.
(b) Name one organism which respires according to equation (ii) above.
(c) When and where does respiration represented by equation (iii) above take place?
(d) Which equation/equations represent aerobic respiration ?
(e) Which equation/equations represent anaerobic respiration ?
(f) Which of the above reactions produces the maximum amount of energy ?
When a person breathes in air, the air enters into his body through an organ A having two holes B in it. The air then passes through pharynx and larynx and enters into a tube C. The tube C divides into two smaller tubes D at its lower end. The two smaller tubes are attached to two respiratory organs E. Each smaller tube divides inside the organs E to form a large number of still smaller tubes called F. The smallest tubes F have air-sacs G at their ends in which gaseous exchange takes place in the body of the person. What are A, B, C, D, E, F and G?
An organism X having breathing organs A lives on land. When organism X goes under water, it cannot survive for a long time unless carrying an oxygen cylinder. On the other hand, the organism Y having breathing organs B always lives in water and if taken out of water; it dies after a short while. A third organism Z having. breathing organs C and D which lives on the banks of ponds, lakes and rivers can survive on land as well as in water equally well.
(a) What could organism X be ? Name the breathing organs A.
(b) What could organism Y be ? Name the breathing organs B.
(c) What could organism Z be? Name the breathing organs C and D.
(d) Out of X, Y and Z, which organism is (i) amphibian, (ii) aquatic, and (iii) terrestrial ?
Fill in the following blanks with suitable words :
(a) Gums and resins are the ................. products of plants.
(b) Bowman's capsule and tubule taken together make a...................
(c) The organs which extract the nitrogenous wastes from the blood are ..................
(d) The extracellular fluid which always flows from body tissues to the heart is called..................
(e) The ............blood cells make antibodies whereas............. blood cells help in respiration.
Match the terms in column I with their uses in column II
(a) Pipes for transport in humans
(ii) Arteries and Veins
(b) Clotting of blood
(iii) Xylem vessels
(c) Pumping organ
(d) Water transport in plants
(e) Carrier of oxygen
The transport system in plants consists of two kinds of tissues X and Y. The tissue X is made up of living cells and consists of two components A and B. The component A has tiny pores in its end walls and contains only cytoplasm but no nucleus. On the other hand, component B has cytoplasm as well as nucleus. The tissue Y is made up of dead cells and consists of two components C and D. The component C has open ends whereas component D does not have open ends. In flowering plants, either only C or both C and D transport water but D is the only water conducting tissue in non-flowering plants.
(a) What is (i) tissue X (ii) component A, and (iii) component B ?
(b) What is (i) tissue Y (ii) component C, and (iii) component D ?
Water and dissolved minerals get into the root hair of a plant by a process called A and enter the conducting tissue B. The process C helps the water and dissolved minerals to move up through the tissue B in roots and stem, and reach the leaves of a plant. In the leaves food is made by a process D. This food is then transported to all the parts of a plant through tissue E. The process of distributing food made in the leaves to all the parts of the plant is called F.
(a) What are (i) A (ii) B (iii) C (iv) D (v) E, and (vi) F ?
(b) Which tissue is made up of living cells : B or E ?
(c) Which tissue, B or E, contains sieve tubes?
(d) Which tissue, B or E, contains tracheids ?
The liquid connective tissue A circulates in our body continuously without stopping. This tissue contains a pigment B which imparts it a colour C. The tissue A consists of four components D, E, F and G. The component D fights infection and protects us from diseases. The component E helps in the clotting of tissue A if a person gets a cut. The component F is a liquid which consists mainly of water with many substances dissolved in it and component G carries oxygen from the lungs to all the parts of the body.
(a) What is (i) tissue A (ii) pigment B, and (iii) colour C ?
(b) Name (i) D (ii) E (iii) F, and (iv) G.
(c) Name one substance (other than oxygen) which is transported by tissue A in the human body.
(d) Which two components of tissue A are the cells without nucleus ?
(e) Name any two organisms (animals) which do not have liquid like A in their body.
The human body has an organ A which acts as a double pump. The oxygenated blood coming from the lungs through a blood vessel B enters the upper left chamber C of the double pump. When chamber C contracts, then blood goes into lower left chamber D. The contraction of chamber D forces the blood to go into a blood vessel E which supplies oxygenated blood to all the organs of the body (except the lungs). The deoxygenated blood coming out of the body organs is taken by a blood vessel F to the right upper chamber G of pumping organ. Contraction of Chamber G forces the deoxygenated blood into right lower chamber H. And finally the contraction of chamber H sends the deoxygenated blood into lungs through a blood vessel I.
(a) What is organ A ?
(b) Name the blood vessel (i) B (ii) E (iii) F, and (iv) I.
(c) What are chambers (i) C, and (i) D?
(d) What are chambers (i) G and (ii) H ?
A liquid X of colour Y circulates in the human body only in one direction : from body tissues to the heart.
Among other things, liquid X contains germs from cells and dead cells. The liquid X is cleaned of germs and dead cells by a special type of white blood cells called Z. This cleaned liquid is then put into blood circulatory system in subclavian veins.
(a) What is (i) liquid X, and (ii) colour Y ?
(b) What are Z ?
(c) The liquid X is somewhat. similar to a component of blood. Name this component.
(d) Why is liquid X not red ? .
There is a pair of bean-shaped organs P in the human body towards the back, just above the waist. A waste product Q formed by the decomposition of unused proteins in the liver is brought into organ P through blood by an artery R. The numerous tiny filters S present in organ P clean the dirty blood by removing the waste product Q. The clean blood goes into circulation through a vein T. The waste substance Q other waste salts, and excess water form a yellowish liquid U which goes from organ P into a bag-like structure V
through two tubes W. This liquid is then thrown out of the body through a tube X.
(a) What is (i) organ P, and (ii) waste substance Q ?
(b) Name (i) artery R; and (ii) vein T.
(c) What are tiny filters S known as?
(d) Name (i) liquid U (ii) structure V (iii) tubes W, and (iv) tube X.
The organs A of a person have been damaged completely due to which too much of a poisonous waste material B has started accumulating in his blood, making it dirty. In order to save this person's life, the blood from an artery in the person's arm is made to flow into long tubes made of substance E which are
kept in coiled form in a tank containing solution F. This solution contains three materials G, H and I in similar proportions to those in normal blood. As the person's blood passes through long tubes of substance E, most of the wastes present in it go into solution. The clean blood is then put back into a vein in the arm of the person for circulation.
(a) What are organs A ?
(b) Name the waste substance B.
(c) What are (i) E, and (ii) F ?
(d) Name G, H and I.
(e) What is the process described above known as?