The farmers use large amounts of a substance P in the fields to increase the crop yield. The excess of P dissolves in water and runs into a lake. The substance P causes rapid growth of tiny green water plants Q in the lake which cover the whole lake like a green sheet. When the plants Q die, the organisms called R decompose them by utilizing S dissolved in lake water. The amount of dissolved Sin water decreases too much due to which the fish living in lake suffocate and die. What are P, Q, R and S?

The substance P is Fertilizer. The fertilizers act as nutrients for the algae to grow. When these algae die, they act as a nutrient for decomposers like bacteria. As a result of this process, a lot of oxygen in the water gets used up and leads to the deficiency of Oxygen in the water. This may kill the aquatic organisms.

The substance Q is Algae, R is Bacteria and S is oxygen.