Themes In Indian History - Important Questions

Book: Themes In Indian History - Important Questions

Chapter: 3. Kinship Caste and Class

Subject: History - Class 12th

Q. No. 12 of Long Answer (6 Marks)

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In what ways was the Buddhist theory of a social contract different from the Brahmanical view of society derived from the Purusha sukta?

Brahmanical view of the society according to Purusha Sukta.

a. All the elements of the universe including the four social categories were of divine origin.

b. It emanated from the body of the Brahma- the brahmins from his mouth, kshatriya from his arms, vaishya from his thighs and Shudra from his feet.

c. The occupation of the four categories was also decided accordingly.

d. The brahmins were supposed to study and teach the Vedas and perform sacrifices.

e. The Kshatriyas were to engage in warfare, protect people and administer justice.

f. The Vaishyas worked in agriculture, pastoralists, and trade.

g. The Shudras had to serve the above three.

Buddhist theory of social contract.

a. In the Sutta Pitaka, there is an alternative understanding of social inequalities.

b. Originally humans did not have fully evolved into their bodily forms.

c. All the humans lived in a state of peace driving from nature only what they needed for each meal.

d. Gradually there was the deterioration of the state of humans due to increasing greediness vindictiveness and deceitfulness.

e. They decided to select a person who would get angry on seeing something wrong, criticize what needs to be criticized and banish that person who deserved to be banned.

f. He was to be known as the Mahamsammata.

g. All the people would give him a proportion of rice.

h. According to Buddhist traditions, the Institution of kingship was based on human choice and recognization of the role of human agency in creating and institutionalizing economic and social differences.

i. Since the humans responsible for the creation of the system that also changes the future.


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