Explain Al-Biruni’s description of the caste system.

Al-Biruni’s description of the caste system is given below:

a. His description was based on his study of Sanskrit texts.

b. These texts were written by Brahmans and followed by the four divisions of varnas.

c. According to him, the Brahmana was created from the head of God, Brahma and was given the highest caste of the society.

d. The next caste was of Kshatriya, created from the shoulders and hands of Brahma.

e. Vaishya was created from the thigh of Brahma and Shudra was created from the feet of Brahma.

f. As these classes differed from each other, they lived together in the same villages and towns, mixed together in the same houses.

g. In reality, this system was not very rigid.

h. He tried to explain the caste system by checking the parallels in other societies.