Historians have provided accounts of diplomatic relationships and conflicts with the neighbouring political powers of the Mughal empire. Explain.

Mughal Empire was one of the most powerful Empire at its peak and had diplomatic relations with many of its neighbouring political powers. Historians have described various conflicts and accounts of diplomacy between Mughals and their neighbours.

• To conquer the Indian sub-continent, any conqueror from central Asia had to cross the Hindukush mountains to have access to North India. Therefore a main objective of the Mughals was to ward off this potential danger by controlling the strategic outposts like Qandahar and Kabul at this region.

• At the western front of the empire was the powerful Safavid empire that held diplomatic ties with the Mughals but was still involved in some conflicts.

• Qandahar was a bone of contention for Mughals and Safavids as it was important for both of them. After Humayun, Akbar recaptured Qandahar in 1595, but the Safavids continued to stake claims to the city.

• After Jahangir's diplomatic mission failed in 1613, the Safavids besieged the city of Qandahar in 1622 and defeated the ill-prepared Mughal garrison stationed there.

• Apart from the Safavids, another Empire with which Mughals had strong diplomatic ties was the Ottoman Empire. Their diplomatic relation was mainly based around free movement of merchants and pilgrims in the Ottoman-controlled Arabia.

• Mughal empire’s relation with the Ottomans was also related to commerce as the Mughals exported valuable commodities and merchandise to the red seaport of Aden and Mokha.