To what extent were social relations transformed in the new cities?

The extent to which the social relations transformed in the new cities are described below:

1. The newly emerged public places acted as a major source of entertainment. They helped the people to increase their social interaction with others. The people were able to express their ideas and opinions on certain topics very easily.

2. The introduction of the railways by the British proved to be extremely advantageous for Indians in the late 19th century. Economic activity also started taking place in new centres besides the old centres, due to the creation of railway connectivity in these new locations. The railway stations acted as a point to collect raw materials and distribute imported or finished goods to different parts of the country.

3. Many new industries and infrastructural facilities were developed in the towns which attracted a large number of people from adjoining areas in search of work and employment. Many people also came to start their own businesses in these towns.

4. The prominent Indian merchants established themselves in big cities like Calcutta and Madras. They built courtyard type houses in the ‘Black Towns’. They purchased huge tracts of lands in these towns. They organized pompous parties during festivals like Durga Puja to impress their British masters. They also built various temples to show their power and status symbol to the common people.