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A particle executes simple harmonic motion with an amplitude of 10 cm. At what distance from the mean position are the kinetic and potential energies equal?
Let’s assume at the distance x from its mean position, kinetic energy is equal to potential energy.
We have two formulae.
Since, they are equal at a distance x.
At this point, Kinetic and potential energy will be equal.
On putting the value of amplitude we get,
Consider a particle moving in simple harmonic motion according to the equation
where x is in centimeter and t in second. The motion is started at t = 0. (a) When does the particle come to rest for the first time? (b) When does the acceleration have its maximum magnitude for the first time? (c) When does the particle come to rest for the second time?
A small block of mass m is kept on a bigger block of mass M which is attached to a vertical spring of spring constant k as shown in the figure. The system oscillates vertically. (a) Find the resultant force on the smaller block when it is displaced through a distance x above its equilibrium position. (b) Find the normal force on the smaller block at this position. When is this force smallest in magnitude? (c) What can be the maximum amplitude with which the two blocks may oscillate together?
The block of mass m1 shown in figure (12-E2) is fastened to the spring and the block of mass m2 is placed against it. (a) Find the compression of the spring in the equilibrium position. (b) The blocks are pushed a further distance (2/k) (m1 + m2) g sinθ against the spring and released. Find the position where the two blocks separate. (c) What is the common speed of blocks at the time of separation?
In figure (12-E3) k = 100 N m-1, M = 1 kg and F = 10 N. (a) Find the compression of the spring in the equilibrium position. (b) A sharp blow by some external agent imparts a speed of 2 m s-1 to the block towards left. Find the sum of the potential energy of the spring and the kinetic energy of the block at this instant. (c) Find the time period of the resulting simple harmonic motion. (d) Find the amplitude. (e) Write the potential energy of the spring when the block is at the left extreme. (f) Write the potential energy of the spring when the block is at the right extreme. The answers of (b), (e) and (f) are different. Explain why this does not violate the principle of conservation of energy.
The spring shown in figure (12-E5) is upstretched when a man starts pulling on the cord. The mass of the block is M. If the man exerts a constant force F, find (a) the amplitude and the time period of the motion of the block, (b) the energy stored in the spring when the block passes through the equilibrium position and (c) the kinetic energy of the block at this position.
A rectangular plate of sides a and b is suspended from a ceiling by two parallel strings of length L each (figure 12-E11). The separation between the strings is d. The plate is displaced slightly in its plane keeping the strings tight. Show that it will execute simple harmonic motion. Find the time period.
A 1 kg block is executing simple harmonic motion of amplitude 0.1 m on a smooth horizontal surface under the restoring force of a spring of spring constant 100 N m-1. A block of mass 3 kg is gently placed on it at the instant it passes through the mean position. Assuming that the two blocks move together find the frequency and the amplitude of the motion.
The left block in figure (12-E13) moves at a speed u towards the right block placed in equilibrium. All collisions to take place are elastic and the surfaces are frictionless. Show that the motions of the two blocks are periodic. Find the time period of these periodic motions. Neglect the widths of the blocks.
All the surfaces shown in figure (12-E15) are frictionless. The mass of the car is M, that of the block is m and the spring has spring constant k. Initially, the car and the block are at rest and the spring is stretched through a length x when the system is released. (a) Find the amplitudes of the simple harmonic motion of the block and of the car as seen from the road. (b) Find the time period(s) of the two simple harmonic motions.
A uniform plate of mass M stays horizontally and symmetrically on two wheels rotating in opposite directions (figure 12-E16). The separation between the wheels is L. The friction coefficient between each wheel and the plate is t. Find the time period of oscillation of the plate if it is slightly displaced along its length and released.
Assume that a tunnel is dug across the earth (radius =R) passing through its centre. Find the time a particle takes to cover the length of the tunnel if (a) it is projected into the tunnel with a speed of √gR (b) it is released from a height R above the tunnel (c) it is thrown vertically upward along the length of tunnel with a speed of √gR.
Assume that a tunnel is dug along a chord of the earth, at a perpendicular distance R/2 from the earth’s centre where R is the radius of the earth. The wall of the tunnel is frictionless. (a) Find the gravitational force exerted by the earth on a particle of mass m placed in the tunnel at a distance x from the centre of the tunnel. (b) Find the component of this force along the tunnel and perpendicular to the tunnel. (c) Find the normal force exerted by the wall on the particle. (d) Find the resultant force on the particle. (e) Show that the motion of the particle in the tunnel is simple harmonic and find the time period.
The ear-ring of a lady shown in figure (12-E18) has a 3 cm long light suspension wire (a) Find the time period of small oscillations if the lady is standing on the ground. (b) The lady now sits in a merry-go-round moving at 4 m s-1 in a circle of radius 2 m. Find the time period of small oscillations of the ear-ring.
Find the time period of small oscillations of the following systems. (a) A metre stick suspended through the 20 cm mark. (b) A ring of mass m and radius r suspended through a point on its periphery. (e) A uniform square plate of edge a suspended through a corner. (d) A uniform disc of mass m and radius r suspended through a point r/2 away from the centre.
(a) 1.51 s
A closed circular wire hung on a nail in a wall undergoes small oscillations of amplitude 2° and time period 2 s. Find (a) the radius of the circular wire, (b) the speed of the particle farthest away from the point of suspension as it goes through its mean position, (c) the acceleration of this particle as it goes through its mean position and (d) the acceleration of this particle when it is at an extreme position. Take g = π2 m s-1.
Two small bails, each of mass m are connected by a light rigid rod of length L. The system is suspended from its centre by a thin wire of torsional constant k. The rod is rotated about the wire through an angle θ0 and released. Find the force exerted by the rod on one of the balls as the system passes through the mean position.