Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.
Advantages of multi-purpose river projects: Multi-purpose river projects, as the name suggests, makes water available for multiple uses. It provides water for irrigation and domestic use. This water is also used for hydroelectricity. This also prevents floods, and is used for fish breeding and inland navigation. Example, Hirakund project in the Mahanadi basin helps in conservation of water and flood control.
Disadvantages: Collecting water in dams disturbs the natural flow. This means that the sediment deposition on the river banks will be lesser. This also causes excessive sediment deposition at the bottom of the reservoir, disturbing the natural aquatic life. This has also caused disputes between states regarding the sharing it's costs and water availability. If the water is in a still state, there are chances of diseases being spread. Collecting the water in a reservoir also means that a lot of land will be covered which was, once, a forest cover or a village. The reservoir water also causes pollution due to excessive use of water.
Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as 'suffering from water scarcity' or 'not suffering from water scarcity'.
(a) Region with high annual rainfall.
(b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population.
(c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted.
(d) Region having low rainfall and low population.
Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-purpose river projects?
(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from water scarcity.
(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow helps to control floods.
(c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of livelihood.
(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our homes.
Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them correctly.
(a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources.
(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the river’s natural flow and its sediment flow.
(c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal.