Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.

How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?

Differences between integrated steel plants and mini steel plants:

Integrated Steel Plants

Mini Steel Plants

1. These are large set- ups and possess the ability to handle all work from raw material processing to the production of finished good products.

1. These plants are comparatively smaller, They have electric furnaces, and make use of the steel scarp and sponge iron to produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.

2. These plants serve the local as well as international market.

2. These plants mainly serve the needs of local market.

3. Huge investment is required for the establishment and running of these plants.

3. Less investment is required for setting up and running mini plants..

4. India has 10 integrated steel plants, located in various parts of the country.

4. More than 400 steel plants are present in India.

Despite immense potential India is not able to give up to the mark production values, mainly due to the underlying reasons:

(a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal,

(b) Inefficiency of the labour

(c) Irregular energy supply

(d) Low quality infrastructure

Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) have given a boost to the industry with the efforts of private entrepreneurs.