Write the answers of the following questions in 120 words.

How do industries pollute the environment?

The rapid growth in industries has led to considerable economic growth. However, apart from the benefits it has also contributed to the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise resulting in degradation of the environment. Industries contribute to the following five types of pollution:

(a) Air pollution: The paper factories, chemic factories, pulp, chemical, dyeing and textile industries emit out large amount of smoke. This smoke releases a high amount of undesirable gases, such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide in the air which contribute to the air pollution. If there is any leakage of toxic gases it can be very hazardous with long-term effects. It can potentially affect the human health, animals, plants, buildings and the atmosphere as a whole.

(b) Water pollution: Many industries including the paper industries, chemical industries and textiles industry release harsh chemical substances and other untreated wastes materials into the water resources leading to water pollution. Agriculture and fertiliser wastes when dumbed in the water bodies contribute to lead and mercury poisoning in the water bodies which make the water unfit for the flora and fauna of the hydrosphere.

(c) Thermal pollution: If hot water from industries is discharged into the water bodies without cooling, it leads to thermal pollution.

(d) Land pollution: Dumping of wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts 'and garbage alters the fertility of the soil and makes it polluted. The seepage of chemical from these wastes via rainwater contaminate the groundwater and increases the concentration of toxic metals such as lead and mercury into the underground water.

(e) Noise pollution: Industrial and construction activities, machinery, factory equipment, generators-, electric drills, etc contribute to noise pollution. Noise pollution tends to cause irritation and anger, the effects are more harmful in people suffering from high BP and in infants. It can lead to hearing impairment, increased heart-beat and blood pressure.