The idea of planning in India was drawn from
(a) the Bombay plan
(b) experiences of the Soviet
(c) Gandhian vision of society
(d) Demand by peasant bloc countries organisations
i. b and d only
ii. d and c only
iii. a and b only
iv. all the above
The correct answer is (iv). All the above
The idea of planning was the outcome of several factors:
1. The experience of the great depression in Europe where the economic crisis troubled many nations along with Europe proved to be a lesson for the world.
2. The Bombay Plan where many big industrialists of India decided setting up a planned Economy.
3. Gandhi was critical of industrial civilization in west, where weaker section was exploited. Gandhian principles to economic policies were also applied in Planning of Economy.
4. After independence there was conflict in ideas between industrialists and peasants, where former wanted to set up industries in resourceful regions and later thought that these industries would exploit the region, resources and their employment.
(a) Charan Singh
(b) P C Mahalanobis
(c) Bihar Famine
(d) Verghese Kurien
iv. Milk Cooperatives
Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the national Congress government pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment that was justified in terms of the sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in production. “ — Francine Frankel
(a) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about? What would be the political implications of a contradiction like this?
(b) If the author is correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties?
(c) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its Sate level leaders?