Read the following passage and answer the questions below:

“In the early years of Independence, two contradictory tendencies were already well advanced inside the Congress party. On the one hand, the national party executive endorsed socialist principles of state ownership, regulation and control over key sectors of the economy in order to improve productivity and at the same time curb economic concentration. On the other hand, the national Congress government pursued liberal economic policies and incentives to private investment that was justified in terms of the sole criterion of achieving maximum increase in production. “ — Francine Frankel

(a) What is the contradiction that the author is talking about? What would be the political implications of a contradiction like this?

(b) If the author is correct, why is it that the Congress was pursuing this policy? Was it related to the nature of the opposition parties?

(c) Was there also a contradiction between the central leadership of the Congress party and its Sate level leaders?

(a) The author is talking about the contradiction between capitalist and socialist model, and regarding the adoption of model. Political implementation of this controversy led to confliction in parties and the members.

(b) Congress was pursuing this policy so as to achieve maximum increase in production. Yes, it was related to the nature of opposition parties as it focused on liberal economic policies and incentives to be provided to private investment.

(c) No, there was no contradiction between central and state level leaders of congress party.