Why did Nehru regard conduct of foreign relations as an essential indicator of independence? State any two reasons with examples to support your reading.
Nehru was a profound statesman. According to him, foreign relations were the essence of independence. He believed that foreign policy of a country forms its basic character in the world. It is distinct for every nation.
• For Nehru, independence basically consisted of foreign relations. Without autonomy over foreign relations, a nation could not be called independent. For him the sovereignty of a nation was supreme. Therefore, he also signed the Panchsheel treaty or the Treaty of non- interference and cooperation with China.
• India was born in the backdrop of cold war. USSR and USA had emerged as the two superpowers of the world. Nations of the world had joined one of the blocs. Under such circumstances, in his foreign relations, Nehru took up the policy of Non-alignment. He declared that India would not be a part of any of the two blocs. Under the Non-aligned Movement, Nehru also urged the newly independent countries of Africa and south-east Asia to not be aligned to any of the superpowers and function as a completely sovereign body.
Write ‘true’ or ‘false’ against each of these statements.
(a) Non-alignment allowed India to gain assistance both from USA and USSR.
(b) India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning.
(c) The cold war has affected the relationship between India and Pakistan.
(d) The Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1971 was the result of India’s closeness to the USA.
(a) The goal of India’s foreign policy in the period 1950-1964
i. Tibetan spiritual leader who crossed over to India
ii. Preservation of territorial integrity, sovereignty and economic development
(c) Bandung Conference
iii. Five principles of peaceful coexistence
(d) Dalai Lama
iv. Led to the establishment of NAM
India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and cooperation. But India fought three wars in a space of ten years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy? Or would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.
Read this passage and answer the questions below:
“Broadly, non-alignment means not tying yourself off with military blocs….It means trying to view things, as far as possible, not from the military point of view, though that has to come in sometimes, but independently, and trying to maintain friendly relations with all countries.” — Jawaharlal Nehru
(a) Why does Nehru want to keep off military blocs?
(b) Do you think that the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty violated the principle of non-alignment? Give reasons for your answer.
(c) If there were no military blocs, do you think non-alignment would have been unnecessary?