Write short notes on the following.

(a) India’s Nuclear policy

(b) Consensus on foreign policy matters

(a) Nehru was a propagator of science and had faith in science and technology in the rapid development of modern India. He did not believe in the violent use of nuclear energy, rather he believed in the usage of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. India conducted its first nuclear test in May 1974. He requested the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. Also, India refused to sign the Non-Proliferation treaty, being imposed upon the world by the five nuclear powers- US, UK, China, USSR and France as it considered it to be discriminatory. India was committed to the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.

(b) Nehru was his own foreign minister. He served as both, the prime minister as well as the foreign minister. He played a crucial role in setting the national agenda. He exercised formulation and implementation of foreign policies from 1946 to 1964. His main three objectives were- sovereignty, territorial integrity and rapid economic development. He strongly believed in the policy of nonalignbment. However, there were obviously certain parties and groups in the country that thought otherwise and preferred aligning with one particular power bloc. There was one section that preferred the US because it was a democratic nation. Dr. Ambedkar believed the same. Other political parties that opposed communism also favored the US and wanted India to follow pro-US foreign policy. However, Nehru possessed considerable leeway in formulating his policies.