What were the factors which led to the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s?
The factors for the popularity of Indira were:
1. Socialist propaganda like Garibi Hatao i.e. remove poverty became popular.
2. She campaigned for land reform legislation and land ceiling legislation.
3. The crisis in East Pakistan to establish independent Bangladesh gained her popularity.
4. She turned out to be a mass leader as a protector of poor and underpriviledged.
Which of these statements about the 1967 elections is/are correct?
(a) Congress won the Lok Sabha elections but lost the Assembly elections in many states.
(b) Congress lost both Lok Sabha and Assembly elections.
(c) Congress lost majority in the Lok Sabha but formed a coalition government with the support of some other parties.
(d) Congress retained power at the Centre with an increased majority.
i. An elected representative leaving the party on whose ticket s/he has been elected
ii. A catchy phrase that attracts public attention
iii. parties with different ideological position coming together to oppose Congress and its policies
iv. A group of powerful and influential leaders within the Congress
How should a political party resolve its internal differences? Here are some suggestions. Think of each and list out their advantages and shortcomings.
(a) Follow the footsteps of the party president
(b) Listen to the majority group
(c) Secret ballot voting on every issue
(d) Consult the senior and experienced leaders of the party
State which of these were reasons for the defeat of the Congress in 1967. Give reasons for your answer.
(a) The absence of a charismatic leader in the Congress party
(b) Split within the Congress party
(c) Increased mobilisation of regional, ethnic and communal groups
(d) Increasing unity among non-Congress parties
(e) Internal differences within the Congress party
Read the passage and answer the questions below:
…Indira Gandhi changed the Congress into highly cerntalised and undemocratic party organisation, from the earlier federal, democratic and ideological formation that Nehru had led…..But this… could not have happened had not Indira Gandhi changed the entire nature of politics. This new, populist politics turned political ideology ……. Into a mere electoral discourse, use of various slogans not meant to be translated into government policies…… During its great electoral victories in early 1970s, amidst the celebration, the Congress party as a political organisation died….. — Sudipta Kaviraj
a) What according to the author is the difference between the strategies of Nehru and Indira Gandhi?
b) Why does the author say that the Congress party ‘died’ in the seventies?
c) In what way, did the change in the Congress party affect other political parties also?