What were the reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980?
There were several reasons which led to the mid-term elections in 1980, which defeated Janata Party and again Congress led by Indira Gandhi came back to power by winning 353 seats, these were the following :-
1. Janata Party lacked direction, leadership and common programme. They were busy arguing with one another and didn’t direct their policies together.
2. Janata Party government could not bring a fundamental change in policies pursued by congress. They lacked in creating a stronger unified alternate.
3. There was a split in Janata Party and the government led by Morarji Desai which lost its majority in less than 18 months.
4. Charan Singh government was formed due to support of congress party which later decided to withdraw its support resulting resignation of Charan Singh government within four months.
State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are
correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.
(a) Total Revolution
i. Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi Hatao
ii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protest
iii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strike
iv. George Fernandes
Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups …… .. … The Janata Party also went through major convulsions …. David Bulter, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parties?