The Shah Commission was appointed in 1977 by the Janata Party Government. Why was it appointed and what were its findings?
In March 1977, Janata Party government was formed at the centre. In may 1977 the Janata Party government appointed a commission of inquiry headed by the justice J.C Shah, retired chief justice of the supreme court of India, to inquire, “into several aspects of allegation of abuse authority, excess malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of emergency proclaimed on the 25june, 1975”.
The commission performed to examine various evidence to give testimony, even including Indira Gandhi to appear before the commission, but she refused to respond to any questions.
Finding of the Shah Commission:-
a. Found Many ‘excesses’ committed during emergency
b. Under preventive detention laws nearly one lakh people were arrested.
c. The press censorship took place without any prior legal sanctions.
d. The general manager of Delhi Power Supply cooperation received verbal orders from the office of the LT. Governor of the Delhi to cut the electricity of all the newspaper, press at 2 am, on 26 June 1975.
State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are
correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.
(a) Total Revolution
i. Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi Hatao
ii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protest
iii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strike
iv. George Fernandes
Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups …… .. … The Janata Party also went through major convulsions …. David Bulter, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parties?