What reasons did the Government give for declaring a National Emergency in 1975?
There were several reasons that government gave for declaring a National Emergency in 1975. The main reason they emphasised on were:-
1. Economic Crisis – War took place between India and Pakistan in December in 1971 and Pakistan was defeated in the war. But this war had put a heavy strain on India economy. In 1974 prices increases over 30 percent, the failure of monsoon in 1972-73 led to the downfall in agricultural production. Poverty and unemployment was very high. Hardship of masses increased and there was general atmosphere of dissatisfaction among the masses.
2. Gujarat Movement – In January 1974, students in Gujarat started an agitation against 20% hike in hostel food in the ID College of engineering. The moment was supported by all the opposition parties and demanded the reign of the Chief Minister of Gujarat. President rule was imposed in Gujarat ultimately assembly elections were held in June 1975. The congress was defeated in the elections.
3. Bihar Movement – This movement was started by the students against the misrule, unemployment, rising process, corruption, etc. Later on this movement was led by the Great Socialist Jaya Prakash Narayan. The movement of JP.Narayan is also known as ‘Total Revolution’.
4. Allahabad high court judgement invalidating Smt. Indira Gandhi’s 1971 elections – On 12 June 1975 Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha of the Allahabad High court passed a judgement declaring Indira Gandhi election to the Lok sabha, invalid and made her ineligible to occupy her seat for 6 years
On June 24, Supreme Court vocational judge Justice Krishna Iyer granted a stay that allowed Mrs. Gandhi to function as the Prime Minister on a condition that she should not draw a salary and speak or vote in parliament until the case was decided. This was considered the most important reason which led to declaration of emergency.
5. Demonstration in Delhi Ramleela Ground by all opposition parties. The opposition parties organized massive demonstration at the ground, JP. Narayan Nation-wide Satyagraha for her resignation and asked the army, police and the government employees not to obey illegal and immoral orders of the government.
State whether the following statements regarding the Emergency are
correct or incorrect.
(a) It was declared in 1975 by Indira Gandhi.
(b) It led to the suspension of all fundamental rights.
(c) It was proclaimed due to the deteriorating economic conditions.
(d) Many Opposition leaders were arrested during the emergency.
(e) CPI supported the proclamation of the Emergency.
(a) Total Revolution
i. Indira Gandhi
(b) Garibi Hatao
ii. Jayaprakash Narayan
(c) Students’ Protest
iii. Bihar Movement
(d) Railway Strike
iv. George Fernandes
Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups …… .. … The Janata Party also went through major convulsions …. David Bulter, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee
(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?
(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?
(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parties?