Read the passage and answer the questions below:

Indian democracy was never so close to a two-party system as it was during the 1977 elections. However, the next few years saw a complete change. Soon after its defeat, the Indian National Congress split into two groups …… .. … The Janata Party also went through major convulsions …. David Bulter, Ashok Lahiri and Prannoy Roy. — Partha Chatterjee

(a) What made the party system in India look like a two-party system in 1977?

(b) Many more than two parties existed in 1977. Why then are the authors describing this period as close to a two-party system?

(c) What caused splits in Congress and the Janata Parties?

(a) The imposition of emergency in 1977 and the crisis among the ruling party made the system in India look like a two-party system.

(b) The two parties that mainly existed were:

1. The Congress party.

2. Non-Congress party.

It is described as close to two-party system because this period saw the emergence of another party apart from Congress i.e. Janata Party and the end of dominance of a single party rule in India

(c) The main causes for the split in Congress the election of Presidential candidate in 1969. and in Janata Party the tensions among three main party leaders: Morarji Desai, Charan Singh and Jagjivan Ram for the leadership in 1979 led to the split.