Identify the reasons which led to the Chipko Movement in U.P in early 1970s. what was the impact of this movement?
Chipko movement (1947-77) began in two or three villages of Uttrakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villages to fall ash tress for agriculture products and tools. The forest department allotted the same piece of land to some sports contractor for commercial use. Thus, the villagers protested against this decision of the government. This movement ignited by hugging the tress to prevent them from being cut down and linked the issue of environmental degradation. Sunderlal Bahuguna.
This movement showed that tribal are mostly dependent upon forest products for their survival.
Impact of Chipko Movement:
1. This movement to ‘hug tress’ was one of the first grass root environment movements, which attracted national as well as the international attention.
2. This was not only a movement to save environment but also seen as a ‘feminist movement’ not only because of their active participation but also because deforestation was seen affecting women’s life in the hills in their search fuel and fodder.
3. Chipko Movement was not only a movement to save environment but it had a larger social base.
4. The government issued a ban on falling of tress in the Himalayan region for fifteen years.
5. Chipko Movement created awareness among the women of hilly regions as they became aware about their legal rights.
Which of these statements are incorrect?
The Chipko Movement
(a) was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
(b) raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
(c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
(d) demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources.
Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite those with necessary correction:
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(b) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
Read the passage and answer questions below:
…., nearly all ‘new social movements’ have emerged as corrective to new maladies – environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights – none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order. They are in that way quite different from revolutionary ideologies of the past. But their weakness lies in their being so heavily fragmented. …… …. …….a large part of the space occupied by the new social movements seem to be suffering from. Various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti- West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities. — Rajni Kothari
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements?
(c) I f social movements address specific issues, would you say that they are ‘fragmented’ or that they are more focused? Give reasons for your answer by giving examples.