Why did the Narmada Bachao Aandolan oppose the dam projects in the Narmada Valley?
In early 80’s. Development project was launched in the Narmada Valley of central India. The project consisted of 30 big dams, 135 medium sized and about 3 thousand small damns to be constructed on Narmada. Sardar Sarovar Project in the Madhya Pradesh was the biggest and important projects. Narmada Bachao Andolan was started in 1988-1989. Narmada Bachao Andolan opposed the damn project and questioned several ongoing development projects in the country:
1. The construction of the Narmada dam requires 245 to get submerged. It also required about two and a half lakh people from these villages in the construction.
2. It demanded that there should be a cost benefit analysis of the major development of projects due to construction of dams submerged around those 245 villages and relocation of the 2and half lakh population of the village.
3. The movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those people who were affected due the construction of these projects.
4. The movement also questioned the nature of decision making process to be in a framing of Mega-scale development projects.
5. The NBA also demanded participation of local people in decision making and should also have effective control over natural resources.
6. Ultimately the government and the judiciary accepted the right to rehabilitation. The comprehensive National Rehabilitation Policy was formed by the government in 2003.
Which of these statements are incorrect?
The Chipko Movement
(a) was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
(b) raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
(c) was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
(d) demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources.
Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the incorrect statements and rewrite those with necessary correction:
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(b) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
Read the passage and answer questions below:
…., nearly all ‘new social movements’ have emerged as corrective to new maladies – environmental degradation, violation of the status of women, destruction of tribal cultures and the undermining of human rights – none of which are in and by themselves transformative of the social order. They are in that way quite different from revolutionary ideologies of the past. But their weakness lies in their being so heavily fragmented. …… …. …….a large part of the space occupied by the new social movements seem to be suffering from. Various characteristics which have prevented them from being relevant to the truly oppressed and the poor in the form of a solid unified movement of the people. They are too fragmented, reactive, ad hocish, providing no comprehensive framework of basic social change. Their being anti-this or that (anti- West, anti-capitalist, anti-development, etc) does not make them any more coherent, any more relevant to oppressed and peripheralized communities. — Rajni Kothari
(a) What is the difference between new social movements and revolutionary ideologies?
(b) What according to the author are the limitations of social movements?
(c) I f social movements address specific issues, would you say that they are ‘fragmented’ or that they are more focused? Give reasons for your answer by giving examples.