State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences lead to?
From 1952 to 1967 congress party dominated Indian politics. In 1977, for the first time, non-congress government or Janata Party government was established. After 1989 main issues in Indian Politics are as follows:
1. Multiple Party System – In 2014, the Election Commission recognised six national Parties and 54 state level parties. Six National Parties are: Indian National Congress, B.J.P, C.P.I, C.P.I. (M), National Congress Party and Bahujan Samaj Party.
2. End of Single Party Dominance – Congress Party Dominated the political scene at the centre as well as the state before 1967. In 1977, with the formation of Janata Party, the monopoly of the congress party ended for a short period but in the elections of 1980 and 1984 congress secured absolute majority. However, the dominance of congress came to an end in November, 1989 when congress was badly defeated in the 9th general elections and the other parties entered the Lok Sabha with sufficient strength.
3. Rise of Effective Opposition – After 1989, another main issue was the rise of organized opposition. In 1989, with the defeat of Congress (I), a strong organised opposition came into existence. In the 14th and 15th Lok Sabha elections, B.J.P emerged as a strong and effective opposition.
4. Importance of Regional Parties – Growing influence of regional parties is another major issue of Indian Politics. There are 56 regional parties. After the 11th till the 15th Lok Sabha elections no National Party was in a position to form the government without the support of the regional political parties.
5. Growing Politics of Casteism – Growing politics of Casteism is another major issue of Indian Politics. In politics, Casteism is growing day by day. Almost all the states in India are deeply affected by this politically.
6. Coalition Politics – After 1989, coalition government has become a regular feature of Indian Political System. In 1989, National Front Government was formed at the centre with outside support of B.J.P and some other political parties. National Democratic Alliance formed government under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The United Progressive Alliance led coalition government was formed under the Prime Minister ship of Dr. Manmohan Singh coalition politics is also playing an important role at state level.
There were other five main developments and events that occurred in Indian politics after 1989:
1. End of congress system
2. Mandal issue
3. New economic reforms
4. Babri Masjid Issues
5. Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi
Unscramble a bunch of disarranged press clipping file of Unni-Munni…
and arrange the file chronologically.
(a) Mandal Recommendations and Anti Reservation Stir
(b) Formation of the Janata Dal
(c) The demolition of Babri Masjid
(d) Assassination of Indira Gandhi
(e) The formation of NDA government
(f) Godhra incident and its fallout
(g) Formation of the UPA government
(a) Politics of Consensus
i. Shah Bano case
(b) Caste based parties
ii. Rise of OBCs
(c) Personal Law and Gender Justice
iii. Coalition government
(d) Growing strength of Regional parties
iv. Agreement on Economic policies
Read the passage and answer the questions below:
Party politics in India has confronted numerous challenges. Not only has the Congress system destroyed itself, but the fragmentation of the Congress coalition has triggered a new emphasis on self-representation which raises questions about the party system and its capacity to accommodate diverse interests…. An important test facing the polity is to evolve a party system or political parties that can effectively articulate and aggregate a variety of interests. — Zoya Hasan
(a) Write a short note on what the author calls challenges of the party system in the light of what you have read in this chapter.
(b) Given an example from this chapter of the lack of accommodation and aggregation mentioned in this passage.
(c) Why is it necessary for parties to accommodate and aggregate variety of interests?