To what extent were agricultural practices transformed in the period under consideration?

With the increase in the Agricultural activities new practices were introduced in this field in the early cities that were transforming in the 6th century BCE were:-

i) Use of Iron- Tipped Ploughshare- Plough became commonplace. A new type of agriculture with the help of plough was introduced in the fertile alluvial river valley of the Ganga and Kaveri to enhance its sowing fertility. The iron tipped ploughshare was used to turn the alluvial soil in the high rainfall areas. It considerably led to an increase in the agriculture productivity and increased the paddy production manifold.

ii) Transplantation – the transplantation method was also introduced in parts of the Ganga valley. The seeds were first broadcasted in water logged field; this ensured a higher ratio of survival of saplings and high yields.

iv) Spade was another tool that changed the system of agriculture for the people who lived in the areas of harsh land used the spade to do the productive work of agriculture.

iii) Irrigation- irrigation was used to increase agricultural productivity through walls, tanks and canals. This artificial form of irrigation brought a turning point in the agriculture field. Collective efforts of communities as well as the individuals helped in the work of organizing the irrigation method. Kings often gave grants for the construction as well as maintenance of wells and tanks. Some historians are of the view that rulers gave grants of land to extend agriculture to new areas and expand agriculture to vast field of lands for more productivity and involvement of people and cultivators.

The agricultural production increased considerably due to increase in the technology and tools. Thus transformed the society both in a economical manner and in society it created a strata like the small and big farmers and the village headmen whose position was hereditary. In such situation the ownership of the land became very important.