What were the concerns that shaped Mughal policies and attitudes towards regions outside the subcontinent?

Political relations between the Mughal emperors and neighbouring countries of Iran and Turan were dependent upon control of the frontier designed by Hindukush Mountains.

Qandhar was a bone of contention between Safavids (Iran) and the Mughals. This fort city was initially under the control of Humayun. Akbar reconquered it in 1595 C.E. Although Safavids maintained their diplomatic relation with the Mughals but they continued to stake claim over Qandhar.

The main objective of Mughals relations with the Ottoman Empire was to maintain a free movement for pilgrims and merchants in the territories under control of the Ottoman Empire. This was true especially for the Hijaz i.e., that area of Ottoman Arabia where Mecca and Madina, important pilgrim centres were located. Mughal emperors generally combined commerce and religion.

Jesuit Missionaries in the Mughal Courts: Europe came to know about India from the accounts of Jesuit missionaries, travellers, merchants, etc. Jesuit account is the earliest impression of the Mughal court recoded by Europeans.

They held discussions with Akbar on Christianity and debated with Ulema’s about its virtues. Two other Jesuit missions were sent to Mughal Court in 1591 and 1595 C.E.