Microbes can be used to decrease the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Explain how this can be accomplished.

Various bactaria, fungi and cyanobactaria are used in organic farming instead of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Biofertilizers are organisms that help in enriching the soil with nutrients.

• Rhizobium, Azospirillum and Azotobacter help in nitrogen fixation and hence, enrich the soil with nitrogen.

• Fungi such as mycorrhiza form symbiont relationship with plants and absorbs phosphorus from soil and passes it to the plant.

• Cyanobactaria help in nitrogen fixation and is an important biofertilizer.

• Blue green algae adds organic matter to the soil.

• Bio-pesticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis produces a toxin that kills the insect pests

• Baculoviruses are bio-pesticide that is used as a biological control agent against insects and other arthropods.