What is short circuiting? State one factor/condition that can lead to it. Name a device in the household that acts as a safety measure for it. State the principle of its working.
Short circuiting:- When the live wire and neutral directly touches each other due to bad insulation of those wire or any other reason, the current in the circuit increases suddenly. This sudden increment can cause serious damages to the appliances as well as it can cause electrical fires. To prevent this situation a very intelligent solution is used. Basically, a fuse wire is inserted into the circuit. Fuse wire is a conductor wire with a very low melting point. Low melting point is the main characteristic here. Working/Principle of fuse wire:
•Some devices require very high amount of current, the flow of so much current can sometimes cause the melting of the insulating wire due to heating effect of the electric current or by any other reason if the insulation of the wire damages and current increases suddenly.
•This can result into severe electric fires. To prevent this situation a fuse is introduced into the circuit, which is made up of a low melting point conductor wire.
•The wire inside the conductor melts and breaks the circuit as soon as the heating due to current increases.
This prevents further fire or electric short circuit. A fuse wire is a safety measure to prevent electric fires and short circuits. Some usefulness of Fuse:
•Without using Fuse we will be facing daily short circuited electric circuits.
•Device which requires high current can damage permanently causing loss of money and resources.
•Also, fuse prevents electric fires.
Mr. Sharma used to park his car in the basement of his house. One day in the morning he noticed that his basement is full of knee-deep water and its walls were wet because of the hours-long rain at night. When he entered the basement, he experienced a major shock. His father seeing him from outside, rushed to the main switch and switched it off and thus saved his life.
(a) Why Mr. Sharma experienced the shock?
(b) What precautions should Mr. Sharma take to avoid such incidences in future?
(c) Which qualities were shown by Mr. Sharma’s father?