Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following.

(a) Preparation of soil

(b) Sowing

(c) Weeding

(d) Threshing

(a) The Preparation of soil is the very first step before growing of any crop. It consists of many methods such as turning and breaking the soil so that the roots of the crops are able to breathe inside. Another method is loosening the soil, as it helps in the growth of microbes, earthworms etc, in the soil which provide essential nutrients to the soil. These methods are done using a plough, hoe and cultivators.

(b) Sowing is the most important step in crop production. It is process of putting the seeds into the soil for growing crops. One must always use good quality seeds for sowing. It can be easily done by a Seed Drill as it saves time and labour. The picture shows seed drilling using a tractor.

(c) Weeds are the unwanted plants that grow along with the crops, which compete with the crops for sunlight, nutrients and water. So, the process of removing these unwanted is called weeding. There are many ways to control adopted the growth of weeds, such as, turning of the soil before sowing of crops, physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, using certain chemicals called weedicides etc. Because. If the weeds are not removed, they affect the productivity.

(d) Threshing is the process of separating grains or seeds from chaff. Chaff is the undesirable thing other than the seed or grain. It is done after harvesting the crop. It is usually carried out with the help of a machine known as 'Combine'. This machine is a combined harvester and thresher. It harvests plants as well as cleans grains.