What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water.

Irrigation is a process in which water is given to crops at different time intervals. The time and frequency of water supply to crops depends on the type of crops, season, soil types etc. The sources of irrigation can be lakes, underground reservoirs, rivers, dams, ponds, canals and wells.

There are two methods of irrigation which conserve water:

(i) Sprinkler System: Under this method, the perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. This system is more useful on uneven land, having fewer water supplies

(ii) Drip system: In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. Water is not wasted at all. It is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor.