Discuss the condition required for the cultivation of wheat.
Wheat is the second most important food crop in India after rice. It is the staple food crop in the northern, north-western and western regions of India. The following are the favourable conditions required for wheat cultivation –
a) Climate – Wheat is cultivated mainly as a winter crop in India. It requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine during the ripening stage. Unlike rice, excessive moisture is injurious to the crop, and it requires an annual rainfall of 50 -75 cm that should be evenly distributed. Irrigation is necessary if the rainfall goes below the stated amount.
b) Soil – Alluvial soil is highly suitable for wheat cultivation, but it should be well drained.
c) Landform – Gently rolling plain lands suitable for use by heavy machinery like tractors are ideal for wheat cultivation.
d) Demand – High demand has led to an increase in wheat production and areas in north India cultivate it as a commercial crop.
e) Technology – Due to high demand, wheat cultivation has been mechanized with the use of agricultural machinery. Green Revolution has also contributed to an increase in wheat cultivation.