What are the institutional reforms initiated by the government in agricultural sectors? Explain their method.

Continued efforts have been made to develop agriculture in the country since independence. The institutional reforms consist of various measures taken by the Central and State government from time to time. The following are the various institutional reforms initiated by the government in India.

a) Land Reform - The first Five Year Plan (1951 -1956) strongly supported agricultural production, and its main focus was ‘land reforms’ through the abolition of the zamindari system, ceiling on land holdings and consolidation of fragmented land holdings. But the progress of land reform is generally unsatisfactory in many states.

b) Crop Insurance Scheme - Indian agriculture is largely dependent on monsoon. Climatic uncertainties like droughts and floods readily result in crop failure and production fluctuations. To combat this uncertainty, the government provides insurance coverage and financial support to farmers.

c) Establishment of Cooperative societies and Grameen Banks – These institutions provide loans to farmers for at low interest and also encourages the adoption of more modern farming methods. They also help stabilize farms during disaster years.

d) Government support - Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers.

Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services, and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecasting etc. have also been carried out by the government to develop agriculture in the country.