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Discuss these questions in class with your teacher and then write down your answer in two or three paragraphs each.
"On the whole, the small society of Rameswaram was very rigid in terms of the segregation of different social groups," says the author.
(i) Which social groups does he mention? Were these groups easily identifiable (for example, by the way they dressed)?
(ii) Were they aware only of their differences or did they also naturally share friendships and experiences? (Think of the bedtime stories in Kalam's house; of who his friends were; and of what used to take place in the pond near his house.)
(iii) The author speaks both of people who were very aware of the differences among them and those who tried to bridge these differences. Can you identify such people in the text?
(iv) Narrate two incidents that show how differences can be created, and also how they can be resolved. How can people change their attitudes?
Find the sentences in the text where these words occur:
Erupt Surge Trace Undistinguished Casualty
Look these words up in a dictionary which gives examples of how they are used. Now Answer the questions below:
1. What are the things that can erupt? Use examples to explain the various meanings of erupt. Now do the same for the word surge. What things can surge?
2. What are the meanings of the word trace and which of the meanings is closest to the word in the text?
3. Can you find the word undistinguished in your dictionary? (If not, look up the word distinguished and say what undistinguished means.)
Match the phrases in Column-A with their meanings in Column-B.
(i) broke out
(a) an attitude of kindness, a readiness to give freely
(ii) in accordance
(b) was not able to tolerate
(iii) a helping hand
(c) began suddenly in a violent way
(iv) could not stomach
(v) generosity of spirit
(e) persons with power to make decisions
(vi) figures of authority
(f) According to a particular rule, principle or system.
Study the words in italics in the sentences below. They are formed prefixing un-or in-to their antonyms (words opposite in meaning).
(i) I was a short boy with rather undistinguished looks. (un + distinguished)
(ii) My austere father used to avoid all inessential comforts. (in + essential)
(iii) The area was completely unaffected by the war. (un + affected)
(iv) He should not spread the poison of social inequality and communal intolerance. (in + equality, in + tolerance)
Now form the opposites of the words below by prefixing -un or -in. The prefix in- can also have the forms il-, ir-, or im- (for example: illiterate-il+literate, impractical- im+practical, irratational -ir+rational). You may consult a dictionary if you wish.
-adequate -acceptable -regular -tolerant
-demanding -active -true -permanent
-patriotic -disputed -accessible -coherent
-logical -legal -responsible -possible
Rewrite the sentences below, changing the verbs in brackets into the passive form.
(i) In yesterday's competition, the prizes (give away) by the Principal.
(ii) In spite of financial difficulties, the labourers (pay) on time.
(iii) On Republic Day, vehicles (not allow) beyond this point.
(iv) Second-hand books (buy and sell) on the pavement every Saturday.
(v) Elections to the Lok Sabha (hold) every five years.
(vi) Our National Anthem (compose) Rabindranath Tagore.
Rewrite the paragraphs below, using the correct form of the verb given in brackets.
How Helmets Came To Be Used in Cricket
1. Nari Contractor was the Captain and an opening batsman for India in the 1960s. The Indian Cricket Team went on a tour to the West Indies in 1962. In a match against Barbados in Bridgetown, Nari Contractor (seriously injure and collapse). In those days helmets (not wear). Contractor (hit) on the head by a bouncer from Charlie Griffith. Contractor's skull (fracture). The entire team (deeply concern). The West Indies players (worry). Contractor (rush) to hospital. He (accompany) by Frank Worrell, the Captain of the West Indies Team. Blood (donate) by the West Indies players. Thanks to the timely help, Contractor (save). Nowadays helmets (routinely use) against bowlers.
Oil From Seeds
2. Vegetable oils (make) from seeds and fruits of many plants growing all over the world, from tiny sesame seeds to big, juicy coconuts. Oil (produce) from cotton seeds, groundnuts, soya beans and sunflower seeds. Oliver oil (use) for cooking, salad dressing etc. Olives (shake) from the trees and (gather) up, usually by hand. The olives (ground) to a thick paste which is spread onto special mats. Then the mats (layer) up on the pressing machine which will gently squeeze them to produce olive oil.