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Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect?
a. Partition of India was the outcome of the “two-nation theory.”
b. Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
c. East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
d. The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
Match the principles with the instances:
(a) Mapping of boundaries on religious grounds
i. Pakistan and Bangladesh
(b) Mapping of boundaries on grounds of different languages
ii. India and Pakistan
(c) Demarcating boundaries within a country by geographical zones
iii. Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
(d) Demarcating boundaries within a country on administrative and political grounds
iv. Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand
Here are two opinions –
Bismay: “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.”
Inderpreet: “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.”
What is your own opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?
Read the following very different statements made in August 1947 –
“Today you have worn on your heads a crown of thorns. The seat of power is a nasty thing. You have to remain ever wakeful on that seat. you have to be more humble and forbearing now there will be no end to your being tested.” — M.K Gandhi
“…India will awake to a life of freedom. We step out from the old to the new…we end today a period of ill fortune and India discovers herself again. The achievement we celebrate today is but a step, an opening of opportunity…” — Jawaharlal Nehru
Spell out the agenda of nation building that flows from these two statements. Which one appeals more to you and why?
Read the following passage and answer the questions below:
“In the history of nation-building only the Soviet experiment bears comparison with the Indian. There too, a sense of unity had to be forged between many diverse ethnic groups, religious, linguistic communities and social classes. The scale – geographic as well as demographic
– was comparably massive. The raw material the state had to work with was equally unpropitious: a people divided by faith and driven by debt and disease.” — Ramachandra Guha
(a) List the commonalities that the author mentions between India and Soviet Union and give one example for each of these from India.
(b) The author does not talk about dissimilarities between the two experiments. Can you mention two dissimilarities?
(c) In retrospect which of these two experiments worked better and why?